Similarities and differences between Nagorno-Kaharabakh and Kashmir conflicts?

Kashmir conflict

The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the Kashmir conflict have some similarities, but they also differ in significant ways. Here are the key similarities and differences between these two conflicts:


  • Territorial Dispute: Both conflicts revolve around territorial disputes. Nagorno-Karabakh is a region internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but controlled by ethnic Armenians, while Kashmir is a region claimed by both India and Pakistan.
  • Ethnic and Religious Divisions: Both conflicts have underlying ethnic and religious divisions. In Nagorno-Karabakh, the majority of the population is ethnically Armenian, while the surrounding areas are predominantly Azerbaijani. In Kashmir, there is a Muslim-majority population with Hindu-majority regions in India-administered Kashmir.
  • History of Violence: Both conflicts have a long history of violence and periodic escalations. There have been multiple wars, military operations, and acts of terrorism in both regions over the years.


  1. International Recognition: The status of Nagorno-Karabakh is not widely recognized internationally. While it operates as a de facto independent entity with its own government, it is not recognized as an independent state by most countries. In contrast, the status of Kashmir is internationally recognized as disputed territory.
  2. Involvement of External Actors: The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict primarily involves Azerbaijan and Armenia, with occasional support from their allies. In contrast, the Kashmir conflict involves three main parties: India, Pakistan, and the people of Kashmir. Both India and Pakistan have been involved in direct conflicts and have sought international support on the Kashmir issue.
  3. Ceasefire Agreements: The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict witnessed a major escalation and a ceasefire agreement in 2020, brokered by Russia. This agreement resulted in territorial gains for Azerbaijan and significant changes on the ground. In Kashmir, there have been several ceasefire agreements between India and Pakistan, but the conflict remains unresolved, and tensions persist.
  4. UN Resolutions: The United Nations has passed resolutions regarding the Kashmir conflict, calling for a plebiscite to determine the future of the region. No such resolutions specifically addressing Nagorno-Karabakh have been passed by the UN.
  5. Regional Context: The conflicts are situated in different regions. Nagorno-Karabakh is located in the South Caucasus, whereas Kashmir is situated in South Asia. The regional dynamics, geopolitical interests, and historical context differ between these two regions.

It’s important to note that conflicts are complex, and these similarities and differences may not capture the entirety of the situations. The dynamics of conflicts can evolve over time, and new developments may impact the comparisons between Nagorno-Karabakh and Kashmir.

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